Papanicolaou – Pap Test

Screening Guidelines

Cervical Cancer Screening

Used to find changes in the cells of the cervix specifically in the squamocolumnar junction AKA zone of transformation that could lead to cancer. Screening includes cervical cytology (AKA Pap test or Pap smear) and, for some women, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV), which if present with neoplastic changes can lead to cervical cancer.

Clinical exhaustion


Is when ketones are found in urine.

↑ Heart Rate (pulse)

Heart rate should stay within 10 to 15 points of the normal range, higher is indicative of tachycardia

↑ Temperature

Temperature is slightly elevated throughout labor, to be considered normal, this elevation should not exceed 1 to 2°F (0.5 to 1°C) higher is indicative of hyperthermia