Cravings for Non-nutritive substances
Craving non-nutritive substances such as clay, coffee grounds, ice, flour, baking soda, dry milk of magnesia, paraffin and corn, starch may indicate minerals or calories deficiency.
Craving non-nutritive substances such as ice, clay, sand or soil, may indicate Iron deficiency
Daily dietary requirements of protein during pregnancy
80 to 100 grams
- Two arteries with de-oxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta.
- One vein with oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus.
Use the second maneuver of Leopold to determine if the baby is in a posterior or anterior position.
Tachycardia FHR rise above 160 bpm
Normal FHR between 120 – 160 bpm
Bradycardia FHR falls below 120 bpm